Fish species that filter water and feed on phytoplankton, zooplankton, and bacteria water are suitable for integrated farming. The methods of culture adopted are for production of either fingerlings or fish for consumption. The overall economics of combined fish and pig rearing depends on the local conditions. And for cattle, pig, sheep, etc that housing should be near to the pond. Commercial fish farming has already established as a lucrative business venture all over the world. However, in most cases, the main beneficiary is the fishes which utilises the animal and agricultural wastes directly or indirectly as food. A density of 60-100 pigs has been found to be suffi­cient to fertilise a one hectare fish pond. Pig shed is also best to feed for fishes, you can construct the house on the banks of the water body and direct the waste to the ponds. This farming is very common, cow dung with paddy husk is mixed and spread on water ponds as food for fishes. Polyculture is commonly prac­tised in such integrated farming due to the variety of food that becomes available in the pond. • It is clear that integrated livestock fish farming systems are mainly concentrated in Asia. Three major types of paddy-field aquaculture are generally practiced: (i) Simultaneous or combined or synchronous farming. Generally it is about one year, but culture for 6 months duration is also practised. The undigested solids present in the faeces of pig serves as direct feed source for tilapia and common carp. Aquaculture involves the breeding and harvesting of plants and animals in the water. But in case of constructing the house on the water, you should control the quantity of manuring in water. Here ducks are stocked at a much higher density, approximately 1000-2500 per hectare of pond surface and is usually employed in Africa. The duration of culture of fishes and pigs varies. (3) Due to abrupt changes in temperature and dissolved oxygen, inadequate space and presence of piscivore birds, there is great loss of fishes which may be about 20-60%. Advantages of Integrated Farming System • Increased productivity through increased economic yield per unit area per time by virtue of intensification of crop and allied enterprises. Reducing environment pollution. And you should also construct a channel from the animal shed to pond for mixing animal excreta. Poultry excreta is most popular food for fish, which contains highly soluble organic salts, nitrogen, phosphorus. The major challenge of Aquascaping is lack of sufficient water and land. Utilising the by-products of one component of the farming system as an input in other for ensuring supplementary and complementary enterprise relationship 4. Present status of integrated farming of fish and livestock. It is assumed that all the constituents of the system would benefit from such a combination. A major player in integrated farming is China. 4. Among the different livestock based system, fish duck integration is one of the most popular farming practices among woman fishers. If the house is constructed near the pond we should make a channel to divert animal waste to the pond. You can raise either broiler or layer bird in integrated farming. However, the pigs are generally sold when they have attained a weight of 90-100 kg. The production of fish generally varies between 2 and 18 tons per hectare per annum. (2) Through this adequate water level manage­ment, suitable water temperature and dissolved oxygen content can be maintained. Your Name. By increase productivity means that economic yield increases per unit area per unit by time due to intensification of crop and allied farming enterprises. (6) Either monoculture or polyculture can be practised. (2) For fear of harmful effect on fishes, herbicides and insecticides uses in paddy-field is gener­ally prevented which ultimately limits paddy production. (5) Deep pits or other devices has to be provided as shelter to the cultivated fishes at the time of distress. The number of pigs to be raised per hectare and the manuring rates to be applied are based on years of experience. The average production of faeces and urine per pig is about 7.8-8 tons per annum. For layers, the floor area required is about 30 cm2 while for broilers, 15-20 cm2. It also aids in solving the worldw The low feeding cost per individual bird makes poultry farming along with fish, a common investment for poor farmers. One of the major advantages of this farming technique is that the crop yield is high. These larvae gain access to the fields, where they find food and shelter. The weeding can be done regularly. (i) Simultaneous or Combined or Synchronous Farms: In such farming paddy and fish are grown together and harvesting the paddy and fish at the end of the rice-growing season. Proper processing of waste and related substances increases the profit of farmers. (2) Utilisation of the cooperative effects of inter­related farm activities. It has been found that satisfactory fish production can be obta­ined with much lower manuring. (3) The cost of feed for the ducks gets reduced. Rabbit manure have greater value as a direct food for fish compared to other livestock wastes. script async src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js">, Having interest in farming made me to go for helping farmers and other individuals to make profits from agriculture farming, livestock farming ,horticulture farming and gardening. • Improved profitability achieved mainly by way of reduced costs due to recycling of wastes of one enterprise as energy inputs for other systems. Common carp are omnivorous and a bottom feeder. The farmed fish provides high quality protein for human consumption. In some cases, pig excreta is accumulated and fermented and then mixed in the pond. Benefits of Integrated Farming System Enhanced Productivity is one of the most important benefits of integrated farming system. (4) It increases nutritional source for the farmer’s family. This integrated farming will earn you profits when the good pig varieties like large and middle white Yorkshire, Berkshire, Duroc, etc are grown. (1) Addition of too much pig manure may lead to increased nutrient load resulting in pollution of the water body and mortality of the fishes. Such undigested solids serve as direct food source for tilapia and common carp. In such an act, fishes themselves do not play any role. Housing for the livestock should be constructed above the water bodies for main poultry (Hen and ducks) for easy operation of day to day activities. Pig dung contains about 70 percent diges­tible feed for fishes. Recently, controversy has arisen among scientists on the public health aspects of integrated farming. For duck and fish integrated farming the housing should be constructed above the water so that excreta directly go to water. The farming of fish is the most common form of aquaculture. … (3) After harvesting of paddy, the submerged stubbles decompose and fertilise the water. Keeping ducks in enclosures is preferred by most farmers, who use special strains of ducks for better growth. (6) Fishes that can live in confinement and do not tend to escape from the cultivated area. The fishes can be fed with the residuary materials of farms such as leaves, stalks or other waste products. The spillover feed and pig excreta are enough for fish farming. As ducks are held at a much higher density per unit area, higher amounts of manure are thus loaded into the fish pond which subsequently results in higher yields. The chemical composition of pig wastes is depicted in Table 6.13. Submit a Comment Cancel reply. Ponds provide a clean and healthy environment for ducks. (c) Advantages and disadvantages of fish-cum- poultry culture: (1) Chicken manure is a very efficient fertiliser, so no chemical fertiliser is needed for fertilising the pond water. Fishes eat duck dropping directly or consume spilled food. The cow can produce excreta of 15 to 18 kg dung per day, poultry birds produce 68 kg per day, a pig produces 2.5 kg dung per day approximately. The structure is made of wood and provided with a lattice type of floor which permits the excreta and uneaten food to fall directly into the pond water. As over manuring may harm the fishes. (1) The fingerlings released should be of more than 10 cm size, otherwise the ducks may feed on the fingerlings. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Advantages of Integrated Fish Farming. In this article, I would like to discuss the key advantages of the fish farming business in the world. The trapping of prawns and fishes with the help of ‘gamcha or dhoti’ in fallow paddy-fields has been an age old practice in India. (d) Advantages and Disadvantages of Fish-Cum- Duck Culture: (1) There is practically less additional cost for fish culture, as the excreta of the ducks ferti­lises the pond water. In this integrated farming livestock waste is converted to rich fish protein. Catla and silver carp are the surface feeder and their stocking density should not be more than 30 to 35% and for Rohu a column feeder which grown well in ponds with 3 to 4 m water should be stoked at the rate of 15 to 20%. Intensification of crops growth maximizes income in relation to area, time and efforts. Literature reveals that a variety of techniques and stocking rates have been employed in different coun­tries on paddy-field aquaculture. Commercial fish farming needs huge feed requirements which cannot be afforded by the small-scale farmers. 2. In case of insufficient pH, you can add lime to maintain the level. The common carp was traditionally the main species but subsequently other species of Chinese carps are used to make full use of the food resources. Here, part of the pond area and the adjacent land area are enclosed with wire fences (Fig. The animal excreta are the best feed of fishes which has a huge demand in the countries like India, Japan, Singapore etc. (4) It increases nutritional source for the farmer’s family. Following the harvesting of rice, the bundhs are strengthened and sluice gates are installed to control the water supply. As integrated farming involves the recycling of wastes, it has been considered an econo­mic and efficient means of environmental manage­ment. Advantages of Fish Farming: 1. Shrimp harvesting from these fields starts in December, as by this time the early stock of shrimps will have attained marketable size. Advantages of Integrated Fish Farming: The advantages of integrated fish farming are as follows: (1) Full utilisation of farm wastes. Quantity of Lime required is – 2000 kg/ha for 4.0 pH, 1200 kg for 5.1 to 6.0, 1000 kg for 6.1 to 6.5, 400 kg for 6.6 to 7.0 and 200kg/hec for pH 7.1 to 7.5. This is also known as aquaculture and has become widespread over the globe in the past few decades. (2) The water in the field is to be maintained at a desired level. Subscribe to Get Posts in E-Mail. For integrated livestock and integrated farming, you should stock the fishes depending on feed varieties (Surface, column and bottom feeders). So, it advisable to stock fingerlings in the rainy season. For manuring one hectare pond water, the drop­pings of about 250 layers and four batches of 200 broilers each are adequate in a year’s time. For a hectare of the water pond, you may need 50 to 55 goats or sheep for integrated farming. Feed waste from livestock manure can us used as a direct feed of fishes. N,P and K levels in animals are Sheep/goat- 0.65, 0.50 and 0.03%, in cattle 0.15, 0.01 and 0.05%, in pig 0.60, 0.50 and 0.20%, in poultry 0.76,0.63 and 0.22 % and duck 0.91, 0.38 and 0.37%. Due to presence of pis­civorous birds like herons, cormorants, etc., consi­derable loss of fish (20-60%) takes place. The combination of duck and fish farming is seen presently as a means of reducing the cost of feed for ducks, at one hand, and on the other, the excreta of ducks acts in an inexpensive way of fertilising ponds, which results in production of fish food organisms. Soil remains fertile for a long time due to the correct use of organic waste. And for birds and pigs, you should construct a slatted floor (floor made of wood or bamboo). Fishes are divided into three types depending on their feeding nature: Indigenous and exotic species are recommended for integrated fish farming. Duck collect 50% of their food naturally from the pond. In case of seasonal ponds fishes are stocked in April and harvested in December. Soil should have pH levels between 6.5 to 7.5. (2) While foraging for food, ducks sometimes damages the earthen dykes. (2) Ducks by agitating the shore areas of the ponds help to release nutrients. The fish caught in the wild can’t always fulfill the consumer’s demand. (2) Sufficient time should be given from one sto­cking of chicks to the next for renovation of the house and disinfectioning it. In poly culture, crops are grown using several different methods such as crop rotation, inter-cropping, alley cropping, multi-cropping, and companion planting. 2. (2) Considerable care and management skills are required to prevent pollution. Other important species used are male or hybrid tilapia, grey mullet, catla, eel, asian catfish and sea perch. The excreta production depends upon the animal, weight, feed and their body sizes. Rice fields which are water-logged for 3-8 months in a year, there is always small population of fishes that gain access to such waters. Unfortunately, those answers are not kept for the new questioners for the reasons best known to Quora alone. (b) Fishes Suitable for Paddy-Cum-Fish Culture: All fishes are not suitable for such a type of culture as paddy-fields provide special ecological conditions such as shallow turbid water with high temperature. The optimal stocking density of fish species and optimum utilization of manure and lime play major role fish production. The supernatant liquid, at regular intervals, are then discharged into the fish ponds. Fish - livestock farming systems . In developed countries, farming becomes more intensive as industry develops. Due to high productivity of the ponds, fairly high rates of stocking are generally practised — 60,000 finger­lings of different species (weighing 20-30 gm) per hectare. (4) It provides off-season employment to the farmers and farm labours. The carps or shrimps can be grown to the required size through adequate feeding. Integrated farming system ensures influx of income. Livestock waste has 80% water and 20% matter. (4) At the point of entry and exit of water, some control means (such as screens) have to be provided to prevent the cultivated species from escaping and stopping the entry of wild fishes into the paddy-field. Fish-cum-pig culture is practised at large in China where pigs are considered as “costless fertiliser factories”. The farmers can select the fish species with desired characteristics to raise. Advantages of integrated farming system are: Such farming system increases production to meet the demands of Nigerians. Before publishing your Notes on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Water levels go down in winter and summer seasons. In integrated farming, the basic principles involve the utilisation of the synergetic effects of inter-related farm activities and the conservation, including the full utilisation of farm wastes. These and the foliage of other terrestrial plants (vegetables, rice, corn, etc.) Tag: Advantages Of Integrated Fish Farming. Integrated fish farming is based on the concept that ‘there is no waste’, and waste is only a misplaced resource which can become a valuable material for another product (FAO, 1977). Intensification of crops growth maximizes income in relation to area, time and efforts. The production of manure depends upon the age and size of the pig. Fish in a pond are not accessible to everyone. In this system, as considerable energy is spent by the ducks in swimming activity, it is believed to affect the feed conversion ratio and growth rate of the ducks. Various aquatic plants, such as azolla, duck weed, Pistia, Wolffia, Lemna, and water hyacinth (Eichhor-nia) are grown in feeder channels and irrigation ditches associated with the pond farms. Types of Integrated Fish Farming 3. Content Guidelines 2. Your email address will not be published. • In recent years however, some of these systems have been successfully applied in other developing countries and impressive fish yields have been obtained. Fishes are harvested after 12 months of the stocking. Integrated fish farming with poultry is generally cultured as the poultry manure is a very efficient ferti­lizer for fish ponds. Some aquaponic systemscan also be used for indoor … In rotation system the paddy-field has to be pre­pared for raising fishes after the harvest of rice. Integrated Fish and Poultry Farming, Cost and Profits. Wetlands and watershed area where farming it doesn’t give good income, this integrated farming can be the best source of income. Such vegetation’s are considered as valuable food resource for pigs. Cattle wastes are generally collected in a pit for later use. It also fertilises the pond water. Advantages of Integrated Agri-Aquaculture System. Artificial ecosystem with no waste. This problem can be solved with proper maintenance. multiple steams of income; food security; low cost establishment; increased food production; encourages conservation; offer synergy; crop irrigation from waste water ; animal manure as pond fertilizer; crop products as supplementary food for fish; Integrated farming system around the world. (3) Fishes that can thrive on low dissolved oxygen, which is the characteristic of paddy-fields especially in tropical countries. Within the wire fence suitable feeding and resting areas are made. Over manuring can reduce the oxygen levels in water that causes mortality in fishes. Disadvantages. Thus, pigs aptly play a role in biological control of weeds: In fish-cum-pig culture the embankments of fish ponds are made wider (over 10 m in China) to facilitate the building of pig sites and also for growing vegetables, fruit trees or other crops. (2) Fishes that can tolerate high temperature. If this excreta is not disposed, the environment becomes polluted and people's … Such farming system increases production to meet the demands of Nigerians. The ducks are able to forage around the whole pond. Regular harvesting is done which results in thinning of the stock, leading to better growth rate and harvesting of larger shrimps. One main point that makes integrated farming popular is its by-product utilization. There are two basic ways of keeping ducks in fish ponds: Here the ducks are allowed to have free access to the whole pond (Fig. Livestock excreta is a good source of Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium and micronutrients. (1) Chicks should be examined from time to time and diseased one should be isolated, other­wise they will destroy the entire stock. This culture involves higher inputs including labour. In this farming, the house can be constructed above water so that excreta directly fall in the water or we can make a channel to direct excreta into the pond. After harvesting the rice, the stubbles are not removed. Fishes having the following criteria are generally selected for paddy-cum-fish culture: (1) Fishes that can adapt to shallow waters neces­sary for paddy crops. For further on poultry refer chapter 5. (5) Insect pest infestation gets reduced as their life-cycles are disrupted. The problem can be solved with proper maintenance. The growth of fish is very low in winter and summer. The pond should be cleaned regularly to remove water plants which prevent sunlight and oxygen circulation in water. Stocking time of fish depends upon the climate, area and optimum water level in the pond. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Zoology. The species of fishes that have a good market and have nature to efficient utilizer of phyto and zooplankton and also with macrophytic feeding are best for integrated farming. In this article we will discuss about Integrated Fish Farming:- 1. This probably had given rise to the practice of deliberate stocking of fishes and harvesting. Mulberry plants are raised on the dikes of the fish farm and in the neighbouring fields for silkworm production. (3) The purchase and feeding cost per bird is low. These sub­merged stubbles provide the substrate for the develop­ment of fish food organisms. (4) Pigs aptly plays a role in biological control of weeds, as weeds are considered as valuable food source for pigs. In the world today, fish farming produces a wide variety of both saltwater and freshwater finfish, mollusks and crustaceans. During the last decade suitable methods have been developed in various countries for raising ducks in fish ponds. Maximising return from the unit area 2. Fish farming, like other types of farming, offers a plethora of benefits that can help and the environment 1. Rainy season-best suitable for growth of fishes. (1) The water depth being shallow hinders better fish raising. Disclaimer Copyright, Zoology Notes | Exclusive Notes on Zoology for Students, Pig Farming: Taxonomic Features, Advantages and Target Group, Higher Egg Production of Birds: 12 Requirements. This article gives you detailed information about the integrated farming system. This cuts the financial and environmental cost of shipping and provides consumers with fresher fish. To attract the larval shrimps, lamps are hung above the inlets. And one hectare of water body needs to just five cattle/buffalos. Polyculture practices can be used on a commercial farm, a family owned farm, or in a small garden. 5.1. Most of the waste is converted, has a value and used within the framework of the integrated system. Rice … In tropical fish ponds, weeds are a major problem in fish culture. Shallow water depth is maintained till the harvesting of paddy, after which the water depth is raised for the culture of fishes. Fish-Livestock along with Livestock-Crop farming is the major concept in Livestock based integrated farming system. (ii) Alternate or sequential farming or paddy- fish rotation. The most intensive type of poultry production is the battery type of housing, which is installed by the side of the pond. (2) Pig dung conditions the soil of a new pond and provides ready-made organic matter, contain­ing the necessary nutrients. This type of housing on water is suitable for the duck, poultry, cattle. Fishes that are cultured in such waters in India are Mugil sp., Mystus gulio, Haplochromis mellandi (mollusc eating fish), hates calcarifer, Mugil parsia, Puntius sp., Channa sp., prawns and shrimps. The urine and dung of pigs are first allowed to the oxidation tanks (digestion chambers) where sedimentation and fermentation of the manure take place. (5) It gives higher and stable farm productivity and there is less risk (biologically and econo­mically). are used for feeding the pigs. If we go in detail by-product of livestock can be used as input for another farming. Feed waste from livestock manure can us used as a direct feed of fishes. For duck-fish farming the most suitable pond is the barrage type of ponds. June and July are the best suitable months for stocking the fishes. The advantages of integrated fish farming are as follows: (2) Utilisation of the cooperative effects of inter­related farm activities. (3) Due to fish cultivation paddy production gets increased by 5 to 15%. It involves transferring the stock of fishes to specially prepared ditches, channels or pools at the time of paddy harvest and re-stocking them in the field for a further growing period. For culturing over a period of one year, ponds may be stocked with fingerlings of catla, common carp, silver carp and grass carp at a density of 5000-6000 fingerlings per hectare. The dabbling habit in ducks increases the oxygen levels in water. Catching fish from the wild can’t always fulfill the consumer’s demand. (7) It is a means of land reclamation in certain areas. Fish farming is basically raising fish commercially in the tanks and ponds for the purpose of producing food. Advantages 4. Cattle wastes and washings from the cattle sheds are conveyed through pipes into the ponds which acts as good fertiliser. Rabbit farming has been found to be ideal for integration with small- scale fish culture. After transplantation of paddy, stocking in case of fry should be done after 10 days, while for fingerlings after 3 weeks. (5) As the duration of culture is quite short, fishes that have high growth rate is to be selected, so that it can reach marketable size within these few months. For such a cultivation the farm should have addi­tional holding or rearing facilities for the period between paddy harvesting and planting of new fish seedlings. This cuts down the expenditure of rearing fishes. Welcome to NotesOnZoology.com! (2) No supplementary fish feed is required. Privacy Policy3. In the slopes, grasses can also be grown which is used as fodder for grass carp and for other farm animals. Pig excreta is a good source of nitrogen, phosphorous and promotes the fast growth of fingerlings. TOS4. (d) Advantages and Disadvantages of Fish-Cum- Pig Culture: (1) Such integrated farming increases the produc­tivity per area and thus, the farmers income becomes doubled or more. In case of composite fish farming, more than 3 varieties of fishes are stocked depending on availability of fingerlings in the market. (4) Fishes that can tolerate fairly high turbidity. This is one of best profitable integrated farming done in many countries in Asia. Thus, ducks can be said to be ‘living manuring machines’. The birds are confined to cages which are made up of standard, stout, galvanised wire. Undoubtedly, such a combined culture is highly profitable as it greatly increases the production of protein in terms of fish and duck per unit area. (2) Fishes contribute to the enhancement of paddy production by destroying weeds, causing tillering and mineral enrichment by their digging activity, and for the fertilisation of soil by their excrement and also by the unutilised artificial feed. The floor of the house is cemented and is set up at a slope so that the eggs may roll for­ward. This system is much compli­cated and it ensures prolonged period of fish culture. After fish harvesting, the residues remain in the soil which in turn serves as fertiliser for the paddy crop. The duck droppings contain 25 per cent organic and 20 per cent inorgaic substances along with a number of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, etc. Although integrated farming is economically and environmentally sound, the motivation for integration will support the … These stubbles undergo decomposition, thereby fertilising the water and stimulating higher productivity. Fish growth in ponds can be controlled: the farmers themselves select the fish species they wish to raise. Moreover, ducks by agitating the shore areas of the pond, help to release nutrients. The cages are kept on trays for collection of droppings. Grass carp is herbivorous cover surface, column and marginal area of feeding zone. Fish culture with both intensive and extensive poultry productions have been integrated succes­sfully. A piglet produces about 3.4 kg manure a day, while a one-year-old pig gives about 12.5 kg a day. The main advantage of integrated farming is the use of livestock farm wastes. Although duck and fish farming have been in practice in eastern Europe and China and their com­patible nature being recognised since long, the inter­action and benefits of the association have been understood only a few years back. An essential diet for the reasons best known to Quora alone into three types depending on the water converted! Farm labours Singapore etc., after which they are secured and are harvested at will to attract the shrimps. System of channels for transferring the organic matter into the existing farm to additional. Is made by damming shallow valleys, so that the demand, commercial farming... Moreover, ducks can lie on the land and the foliage of other terrestrial (. And their body sizes care and management skills are required to prevent pollution biologically econo­mically! 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